Transistors are semiconductor devices that regulate the flow of electrical current within a circuit. Their invention in the mid-20th century marked a pivotal moment in electronics. Semiconductors, typically made of silicon or germanium, form the basis of transistors, granting them the ability to switch and amplify electrical signals. These devices have revolutionized the world of electronics, making way for the digital age by enabling the miniaturization of complex circuits and facilitating the rapid advancement of technology.
Transistors are fundamental semiconductor devices that revolutionized the world of electronics. Among various types of transistors, Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) hold significant importance due to their widespread use in amplification, switching, and signal processing applications. This article will explore the two main types of BJT transistors: NPN and PNP. We will explore their basic structures, operating principles, and essential circuit elements required for their proper functioning.