Arduino microcontrollers are the heart of countless DIY projects, from robots to automated systems. To bring these projects to life, you often need to interface them with motors. In this guide, we'll walk you through the essential steps of connecting a motor to an Arduino using a separate power supply while ensuring control with precision using an NPN transistor. This approach allows you to harness the full potential of your motorized creations without overloading your Arduino.
Transistors are fundamental semiconductor devices that revolutionized the world of electronics. Among various types of transistors, Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) hold significant importance due to their widespread use in amplification, switching, and signal processing applications. This article will explore the two main types of BJT transistors: NPN and PNP. We will explore their basic structures, operating principles, and essential circuit elements required for their proper functioning.