Pull-up and Pull-down resistors

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A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow and adjust signal levels among other uses. Resistance is measured in Ohm with a sign of Ω.

A microcontroller (e.g. Arduino) utilizes I/O signals for communication with external hardware devices, where the most commonly known being GPIO. As a reminder, digital logic circuits have three logic states: high, low and floating (or high impedance). When there’s nothing connected to your GPIO pins, your program will read a floating impedance state, which we do not want. To achieve either high or low states, we’ll have to implement pull-up or pull-down resistors in our digital circuit.

Using switch buttons with Arduino

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Let's speak now about switch buttons, the wiring and how to implement the code for this circuit elements in Arduino. Switch buttons connect two points in a circuit when you press them and maintain the state without the need to keep the button pressed. That means that logic state of the circuit change every time you press the button.