Transistors are semiconductor devices that regulate the flow of electrical current within a circuit. Their invention in the mid-20th century marked a pivotal moment in electronics. Semiconductors, typically made of silicon or germanium, form the basis of transistors, granting them the ability to switch and amplify electrical signals. These devices have revolutionized the world of electronics, making way for the digital age by enabling the miniaturization of complex circuits and facilitating the rapid advancement of technology.
Arduino microcontrollers are the heart of countless DIY projects, from robots to automated systems. To bring these projects to life, you often need to interface them with motors. In this guide, we'll walk you through the essential steps of connecting a motor to an Arduino using a separate power supply while ensuring control with precision using an NPN transistor. This approach allows you to harness the full potential of your motorized creations without overloading your Arduino.
Transistors are fundamental semiconductor devices that revolutionized the world of electronics. Among various types of transistors, Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) hold significant importance due to their widespread use in amplification, switching, and signal processing applications. This article will explore the two main types of BJT transistors: NPN and PNP. We will explore their basic structures, operating principles, and essential circuit elements required for their proper functioning.